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“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

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